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Philippines    Introduction Top of Page
Background: The Philippines were ceded by Spain to the US in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. They attained their independence in 1946 after being occupied by the Japanese in World War II. The 21-year rule of Ferdinand MARCOS ended in 1986 when a widespread popular rebellion forced him into exile. In 1992, the US closed down its last military bases on the islands. The Philippines has had two electoral presidential transitions since Marcos' removal by "people power." In January 2001, the Supreme Court declared Joseph ESTRADA unable to rule in view of mass resignations from his government and administered the oath of office to Vice President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO as his constitutional successor. The government continues to struggle with ongoing Muslim insurgencies in the south.
Philippines    Geography Top of Page
Location: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, east of Vietnam
Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 122 00 E
Map references: Southeast Asia
Area: total:  300,000 sq km

land:  298,170 sq km

water:  1,830 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly larger than Arizona
Land boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 36,289 km
Maritime claims: continental shelf:  to depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  irregular polygon extending up to 100 NM from coastline as defined by 1898 treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed polygonal-shaped area in South China Sea up to 285 NM in breadth
Climate: tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon (May to October)
Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands
Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Philippine Sea 0 m

highest point:  Mount Apo 2,954 m
Natural resources: timber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, salt, copper
Land use: arable land:  19%

permanent crops:  12%

permanent pastures:  4%

forests and woodland:  46%

other:  19% (1993 est.)
Irrigated land: 15,800 sq km (1993 est.)
Natural hazards: astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and struck by five to six cyclonic storms per year; landslides; active volcanoes; destructive earthquakes; tsunamis
Environment - current issues: uncontrolled deforestation in watershed areas; soil erosion; air and water pollution in Manila; increasing pollution of coastal mangrove swamps which are important fish breeding grounds
Environment - international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:  Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Philippines    People Top of Page
Population: 82,841,518 (July 2001 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years:  36.87% (male 15,547,712; female 14,997,544)

15-64 years:  59.45% (male 24,374,849; female 24,873,595)

65 years and over:  3.68% (male 1,355,046; female 1,692,772) (2001 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.03% (2001 est.)
Birth rate: 27.37 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Death rate: 6.04 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Net migration rate: -1.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth:  1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:  1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:  0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over:  0.8 male(s)/female

total population:  0.99 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 28.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population:  67.8 years

male:  64.96 years

female:  70.79 years (2001 est.)
Total fertility rate: 3.42 children born/woman (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.07% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 28,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,200 (1999 est.)
Nationality: noun:  Filipino(s)

adjective:  Philippine
Ethnic groups: Christian Malay 91.5%, Muslim Malay 4%, Chinese 1.5%, other 3%
Religions: Roman Catholic 83%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 5%, Buddhist and other 3%
Languages: two official languages - Filipino (based on Tagalog) and English, eight major dialects - Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocan, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinense
Literacy: definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  94.6%

male:  95%

female:  94.3% (1995 est.)
Philippines    Government Top of Page
Country name: conventional long form:  Republic of the Philippines

conventional short form:  Philippines

local long form:  Republika ng Pilipinas

local short form:  Pilipinas
Government type: republic
Capital: Manila
Administrative divisions: 73 provinces and 61 chartered cities*; Abra, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Aklan, Albay, Angeles*, Antique, Aurora, Bacolod*, Bago*, Baguio*, Bais*, Basilan, Basilan City*, Bataan, Batanes, Batangas, Batangas City*, Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon, Bulacan, Butuan*, Cabanatuan*, Cadiz*, Cagayan, Cagayan de Oro*, Calbayog*, Caloocan*, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Camiguin, Canlaon*, Capiz, Catanduanes, Cavite, Cavite City*, Cebu, Cebu City*, Cotabato*, Dagupan*, Danao*, Dapitan*, Davao City* Davao, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Dipolog*, Dumaguete*, Eastern Samar, General Santos*, Gingoog*, Ifugao, Iligan*, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Iloilo, Iloilo City*, Iriga*, Isabela, Kalinga-Apayao, La Carlota*, Laguna, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Laoag*, Lapu-Lapu*, La Union, Legaspi*, Leyte, Lipa*, Lucena*, Maguindanao, Mandaue*, Manila*, Marawi*, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindoro Occidental, Mindoro Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Mountain, Naga*, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, North Cotabato, Northern Samar, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Olongapo*, Ormoc*, Oroquieta*, Ozamis*, Pagadian*, Palawan, Palayan*, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Pasay*, Puerto Princesa*, Quezon, Quezon City*, Quirino, Rizal, Romblon, Roxas*, Samar, San Carlos* (in Negros Occidental), San Carlos* (in Pangasinan), San Jose*, San Pablo*, Silay*, Siquijor, Sorsogon, South Cotabato, Southern Leyte, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Surigao*, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tacloban*, Tagaytay*, Tagbilaran*, Tangub*, Tarlac, Tawitawi, Toledo*, Trece Martires*, Zambales, Zamboanga*, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur
Independence: 4 July 1946 (from US)
National holiday: Independence Day (from Spain), 12 June (1898); note - 12 June 1898 is the date of independence from Spain, 4 July 1946 is the date of independence from the US
Constitution: 2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987
Legal system: based on Spanish and Anglo-American law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state:  President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 20 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government:  President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 20 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet:  Cabinet appointed by the president with the consent of the Commission of Appointments

elections:  president and vice president elected on separate tickets by popular vote for six-year terms; election last held 11 May 1998 (next to be held 16 May 2004)

election results:  results of the last presidential election - Joseph Ejercito ESTRADA elected president; percent of vote - approximately 40%; Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO elected vice president; percent of vote - NA%; note - on 20 January 2001, Vice President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO was sworn in as the constitutional successor to President Joseph ESTRADA after the Supreme Court declared that President ESTRADA was unable to rule in view of the mass resignations from his government; according to the Constitution, only in cases of death, permanent disability, removal from office, or resignation of the president, can the vice president serve for the unexpired term
Legislative branch: bicameral Congress or Kongreso consists of the Senate or Senado (24 seats - one-half elected every three years; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Kapulungan Ng Mga Kinatawan (204 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms; note - additional members may be appointed by the president but the Constitution prohibits the House of Representatives from having more than 250 members)

elections:  Senate - last held 11 May 1998 (next to be held 14 May 2001); House of Representatives - elections last held 11 May 1998 (next to be held 14 May 2001)

election results:  Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - LAMP 12, Lakas 5, PRP 2, LP 1, other 3; note - the Senate now has only 22 members with one seat vacated when Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO became vice president and another seat vacated upon a senator's death; the two seats can only be filled by election and will remain open until the next regular election in May 2001; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - LAMP 135, Lakas 37, LP 13, Aksyon Demokratiko 1, other 35
Judicial branch: Supreme Court (justices are appointed for four-year terms by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council)
Political parties and leaders: People Power Coalition or PPC includes: Aksyon Demokratiko or Democratic Action [Raul ROCO], Lakas-NUCD [Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO, titular head, Teofisto GUINGONA, party president], Liberal Party or LP [Florencio ABAD], Probinsiya Muna Development Initiative or Promdi [Lito OSMENA], and Reporma Party [Renato DE VILLA]; Puwersa ng Masa (Force of the Masses) includes: Laban Ng Demokratikong Pilipino (Struggle of Filipino Democrats) or LDP [Eduardo ANGARA], Laban Ng Masang Pilipino or LAMP (Struggle of the Filipino Masses) [Joseph ESTRADA], and People's Reform Party or PRP [Miriam DEFENSOR-SANTIAGO]; Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (New Society Movement) [Imelda MARCOS]; Nacionalista Party [Jose OLIVEROS]; National People's Coalition or NPC [Eduardo COJUANGCO]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNTAET, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador (vacant); Acting Ambassador Ariel ABADILLA

chancery:  1600 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone:  [1] (202) 467-9300

FAX:  [1] (202) 467-9317

consulate(s) general:  Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco

consulate(s):  San Diego
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission:  Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affairs Michael E. MALINOWSKI

embassy:  1201 Roxas Boulevard, Ermita 1000 Manila

mailing address:  FPO 96515

telephone:  [63] (2) 523-1001

FAX:  [63] (2) 522-4361
Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a white equilateral triangle based on the hoist side; in the center of the triangle is a yellow sun with eight primary rays (each containing three individual rays) and in each corner of the triangle is a small yellow five-pointed star
Philippines    Economy Top of Page
Economy - overview: In 1998 the Philippine economy - a mixture of agriculture, light industry, and supporting services - deteriorated as a result of spillover from the Asian financial crisis and poor weather conditions. Growth fell to about -0.5% in 1998 from 5% in 1997, but recovered to about 3% in 1999 and 3.6% in 2000. The government has promised to continue its economic reforms to help the Philippines match the pace of development in the newly industrialized countries of East Asia. The strategy includes improving infrastructure, overhauling the tax system to bolster government revenues, moving toward further deregulation and privatization of the economy, and increasing trade integration with the region.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $310 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.6% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,800 (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture:  20%

industry:  32%

services:  48% (1997 est.)
Population below poverty line: 41% (1997 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%:  1.5%

highest 10%:  39.3% (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (2000 est.)
Labor force: 48.1 million (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 39.8%, government and social services 19.4%, services 17.7%, manufacturing 9.8%, construction 5.8%, other 7.5% (1998 est.)
Unemployment rate: 10% (2000)
Budget: revenues:  $14.5 billion

expenditures:  $12.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)
Industries: textiles, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing, electronics assembly, petroleum refining, fishing
Industrial production growth rate: 4% (2000 est.)
Electricity - production: 40.745 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel:  61.03%

hydro:  18.68%

nuclear:  0%

other:  20.29% (1999)
Electricity - consumption: 37.893 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)
Agriculture - products: rice, coconuts, corn, sugarcane, bananas, pineapples, mangoes; pork, eggs, beef; fish
Exports: $38 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities: electronic equipment, machinery and transport equipment, garments, coconut products
Exports - partners: US 34%, Japan 14%, Netherlands 8%, Singapore 6%, UK 6%, Hong Kong 4% (1998)
Imports: $35 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities: raw materials and intermediate goods, capital goods, consumer goods, fuels
Imports - partners: US 22%, Japan 20%, South Korea 8%, Singapore 6%, Taiwan 5%, Hong Kong 4% (1998 est.)
Debt - external: $52 billion (1999)
Economic aid - recipient: ODA, $1.1 billion (1998)
Currency: Philippine peso (PHP)
Currency code: PHP
Exchange rates: Philippine pesos per US dollar - 50.969 (January 2001), 44.192 (2000), 39.089 (1999), 40.893 (1998), 29.471 (1997), 26.216 (1996)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Philippines    Communications Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use: 1.9 million (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 1.959 million (1998)
Telephone system: general assessment:  good international radiotelephone and submarine cable services; domestic and interisland service adequate

domestic:  domestic satellite system with 11 earth stations

international:  9 international gateways; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean); submarine cables to Hong Kong, Guam, Singapore, Taiwan, and Japan
Radio broadcast stations: AM 366, FM 290, shortwave 3 (1999)
Radios: 11.5 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 31 (1997)
Televisions: 3.7 million (1997)
Internet country code: .ph
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 33 (2000)
Internet users: 500,000 (2000)
Philippines    Transportation Top of Page
Railways: total:  492 km (an additional 405 km are not in operation)

narrow gauge:  492 km 1.067-m gauge (1996)
Highways: total:  199,950 km

paved:  39,590 km

unpaved:  160,360 km (1998 est.)
Waterways: 3,219 km

note:  limited to vessels with a draft of less than 1.5 m
Pipelines: petroleum products 357 km
Ports and harbors: Batangas, Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Guimaras Island, Iligan, Iloilo, Jolo, Legaspi, Manila, Masao, Puerto Princesa, San Fernando, Subic Bay, Zamboanga
Merchant marine: total:  459 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,653,062 GRT/8,512,326 DWT

ships by type:  bulk 149, cargo 123, chemical tanker 4, combination bulk 10, container 5, liquefied gas 13, livestock carrier 10, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 12, petroleum tanker 42, refrigerated cargo 21, roll on/roll off 17, short-sea passenger 31, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 16

note:  includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Cyprus 1, Denmark 1, Hong Kong 5, Japan 14, Netherlands 1, Singapore 1, UK 1 (2000 est.)
Airports: 288 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways: total:  76

over 3,047 m:  4

2,438 to 3,047 m:  5

1,524 to 2,437 m:  28

914 to 1,523 m:  28

under 914 m:  11 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total:  212

2,438 to 3,047 m:  1

1,524 to 2,437 m:  1

914 to 1,523 m:  81

under 914 m:  129 (2000 est.)
Heliports: 1 (2000 est.)
Philippines    Military Top of Page
Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Coast Guard and Marine Corps), Air Force
Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age
Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49:  21,220,191 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49:  14,942,363 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males:  848,181 (2001 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $995 million (FY98)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.5% (FY98)
Philippines    Transnational Issues Top of Page
Disputes - international: involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; claim to Malaysia's Sabah State has not been fully revoked
Illicit drugs: exports locally produced marijuana and hashish to East Asia, the US, and other Western markets; serves as a transit point for heroin and crystal methamphetamine